Portuguese-Indian War Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Bangladesh Liberation War Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Indian Military Honour Awards
Chief of Naval Staff
Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma
Admiral S. M. Nanda
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ThePresident of India serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. The Chief of Naval Staff (CNS), usually a four-star officer in the rank of Admiral, commands the Navy.
Though the primary objective of the navy is to secure national maritime borders, India also uses its navy to enhance itsinternational relations through joint exercises, port visits and humanitarian missions, including disaster relief. In recent years, the Indian Navy has undergone considerable modernisation to replace aging equipment currently in service, this is often seen as part of "India's drive" to become a fully fledged blue-water navy. The 17th century Maratha warrior king Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosale is considered as the Father of Indian Navy.
Early maritime history
India has a maritime history dating back to 7,600 years. The first tidal dock is estimated to have been built atLothal around 2300 BCE during the Indus Valley Civilization, near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Gujarat coast. The Rig Veda written around 1500 BCE, credits Varuna with knowledge of the ocean routes and describes naval expeditions. There is reference to the side wings of a vessel called Plava, which give stability to the ship under storm conditions. A compass, Matsya yantra, was used for navigation in the fourth and fifth century AD.
The earliest known reference to an organisation devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the 4th century BCE. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's Prime Minister Kautilya's Arthashastra devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for Superintendent of ships). The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships, i.e. Exploration) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Buddhist text, Baudhayana
Sea lanes between India and neighbouring lands were the usual form of trade for many centuries, and are responsible for the widespread influence of Indian Culture on other societies. Powerful navies included those of the Maurya, Satavahana, Gupta, Chola, Pandya,Vijayanagara, Kalinga, Mughal and Maratha empires. The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Maratha and Kerala fleets were expanded, and became the most powerful Naval Forces in the subcontinent, defeating European Navies at various times (See the Battle of Colachel). The fleet review of the Maratha navy took place at the Ratnagiri fort in which the ships Gurabs, Galbat, Pal & small ships called as "Sangmeshwari" participated. The 'Pal' was a three masted fighter with guns peeping on the broadsides. Kanhoji Angre and Kunjali Marakkar, the Naval chief of Saamoothiri, were two notable naval chiefs of the period.
In 1612, the English East India Company established the Honourable East India Company's Marine to protect its merchant shipping off the Gulf of Cambay and up the Narmada andTapti rivers. Its first fighting ships in India were acquired on 5 September 1612. This force evolved into Her Majesty's Indian Navy in 1830, while most of India was under British rule. The force at this time had British officers and Indian sailors. The Navy saw action in the First Opium War of 1840 and in the Second Anglo-Burmese War in 1852. During World War I, the force then known as the Royal Indian Marine undertook minesweeping, as well as supply and support operations for the Allies.
Early 20th century
Sub Lieutenant D. N. Mukherji was the first Indian to be granted a commission as an engineer officer in 1928. In 1934, the navy was renamed as the Royal Indian Navy (RIN).
The onset of World War II led to an expansion in numbers of vessels and personnel. The navy was actively involved in operations during the war around the world. Its sloopsHMIS Sutlej and HMIS Jumna played a key role in Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily. It was heavily involved in operations around the Indian Ocean, including convoy escorts, mine-sweeping, supply, as well as supporting amphibious assaults.
At the end of the war, the navy underwent rapid, large-scale demobilisation of vessels and personnel. In 1946, Indian sailors started the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny, a rebellion on board ships and on shore establishments to protest discrimination against Indian officers and sailors by the British. A total of 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors were involved in the rebellion, which spread all over India.
After the independence of India on 15 August 1947 and the ensuing partition, the RIN's depleted fleet of ships and remaining personnel were divided between the newly independentUnion of India and Dominion of Pakistan.
When India became a republic on 26 January 1950, the Royal prefix was dropped and the name Indian Navy was officially adopted. The prefix on her ships was changed to Indian Naval Ship (INS).
Independence to the 1960s
During the early years following independence, the navy still had many British officers who continued to serve with the Indian Navy. Vice Admiral Ram Dass Katari was the first Indian to assume office as the Chief of Staff of the Indian Navy on 22 April 1958.
The first engagement in action of the Indian Navy was against the Portuguese Navy during the liberation of Goa in 1961. Operation Vijay followed years of escalating tension due to Portuguese refusal to relinquish its colonies in India. On 21 November 1961, Portuguese troops fired on the passenger liner Sabarmati near Anjadip Island, killing one person and injuring another. During Operation Vijay, the Indian Navy supported troop landings and provided fire support. INS Delhi (1948) sank one Portuguese patrol boat, while frigatesINS Betwa (1960) and INS Beas (1960) destroyed the Portuguese frigate NRP Afonso de Albuquerque.
The 1962 Sino-Indian War was largely fought over the Himalayas and the Navy had only a defensive role in the war.
Indian Naval activity in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 largely involved coastal patrols. During the war, the Pakistani Navy attacked the Indian coastal city of Dwarka, although there were no military resources in the area. While this attack was insignificant, India deployed naval resources to patrol the coast and deter further bombardment.
Following these wars in the 1960s, India resolved to strengthen the profile and capabilities of its Armed Forces.
Late 20th century
The dramatic change in the Indian Navy's capabilities and stance was emphatically demonstrated during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Under the command of Admiral Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda, the navy successfully enforced a naval blockade of West and East Pakistan.
Pakistan's lone long-range submarine PNS Ghazi was sunk following an attack by the destroyer INS Rajput (1942) off the coast ofVisakhapatnam around midnight of 3–4 December 1971. On 4 December, the Indian Navy successfully executedOperation Trident, a devastating attack on the Pakistan Naval Headquarters of Karachi that sank a minesweeper, a destroyer and an ammunition supply ship. The attack also irreparably damaged another destroyer and oil storage tanks at the Karachi port. This was followed by Operation Python on 8 December 1971, further deprecating the Pakistan Navy's capabilities. Indian frigate INS Khukri was sunk by the PNS Hangor (S131), while INS Kirpan (1959) was damaged on the west coast.
In the Bay of Bengal, the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant (R11) was deployed to successfully enforce the naval blockade on East Pakistan.Sea Hawk and the Alizés aircraft from INS Vikrant sank numerous gunboats and Pakistani merchant marine ships. To demonstrate its solidarity as an ally of Pakistan, the United States of America sent Task Force 74 centred around the aircraft carrier USS Enterpriseinto the Bay of Bengal. In retaliation, Soviet Navy submarines trailed the American task force, which moved away from the Indian Ocean towards Southeast Asia to avert a confrontation.
In the end, the Indian naval blockade of Pakistan choked off the supply of reinforcements to the Pakistani forces, which proved to be decisive in the overwhelming defeat of Pakistan.
Since playing a decisive role in the victory, the navy has been a deterrent force maintaining peace for India in a region of turmoil. In 1988, India launched Operation Cactus, to successfully thwart a coup d'état by PLOTE in the Maldives. Naval maritime reconnaissance aircraft detected the ship hijacked by PLOTE rebels. INS Godavari (F20) and Indian marine commandos recaptured the ship and arrested the rebels.
During the 1999 Kargil War, the Western and Eastern fleets were deployed in the Northern Arabian Sea, as a part of Operation Talwar. They safeguarded India's maritime assets from a potential Pakistani naval attack, as also detered Pakistan from attempting to block India's sea-trade routes. The Indian Navy's aviators flew sorties and marine commandos fought alongside Indian Army personnel in the Himalayas.
In the 21st century, the Indian Navy has played a vital role in maintaining peace for India on the maritime front, in spite of the state of ferment in its neighbourhood. It has been deployed for humanitarian relief in times of natural disasters and crises across the globe, as well as to keep India's maritime trade routes free and open.
The Indian Navy was a part of the joint forces exercises, Operation Parakram, during the 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff. More than a dozen warships were deployed to the northern Arabian Sea.
In 2001, the Indian Navy took over operations to secure the Strait of Malacca, to relieve US Navy resources for Operation Enduring Freedom.
The navy has played a crucial role in providing humanitarian relief in times of natural disasters, including floods, cyclones and tsunamis.
In the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the Indian Navy launched massive disaster relief operations to help affected Indian states as well as Maldives, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Over 27 ships, dozens of helicopters, at least 6 fixed-wing aircraft and over 5000 personnel of the navy were deployed in relief operations. These included Operation Madad in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, Operation Sea Waves in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Operation Castor in Maldives, Operation Rainbow in Sri Lanka andOperation Gambhir in Indonesia. This was one of the largest and fastest force mobilisations that the Indian Navy has undertaken. Indian naval rescue vessels and teams reached neighbouring countries less than 12 hours from the time that the tsunami hit. Lessons from the response led to decision to enhance amphibious force capbilities, including the acquisition of Landing Platform Dockssuch as the INS Jalashwa, as well as smaller amphibious vessels.
During the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, the Indian Navy launched Operation Sukoon to evacuate 2,286 Indian nationals and expatriates, besides 436 Sri Lankan and 69 Nepali citizens, from war-torn Lebanon. In 2006, Indian naval doctors served for 102 days on boardUSNS Mercy to conduct about medical camps in Philippines, Bangladesh, Indonesia and East Timor.
In 2007, Indian Navy supported relief operations for the survivors of Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh.In 2008, Indian Naval vessels were the first to launch international relief operations for victims of Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar.
In October 1999, a coordinated effort by the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard led to the rescue of pirated Japanese cargo ship, MVAlondra Rainbow.
In 2008, the navy deployed INS Tabar and INS Mysore into the Gulf of Aden to combat piracy in Somalia.Tabar prevented numerous piracy attempts, and escorted hundreds of ships safely through the pirate-infested waters. The navy also undertook anti-piracy patrols off Seychelles, upon that country's request.
In 2011, the navy launched Operation Island Watch to deter piracy attempts by Somali pirates off the Lakshadweep archipelago. This operation has had numerous successes in preventing pirate attacks.
Structure and organisation
The Indian Navy is divided into the following broad categories:
Logistics and Material
The Indian Navy operates three Commands. Each Command is headed by a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief in the rank of Vice Admiral.
Western Naval Command
Vice Admiral D K Joshi
Eastern Naval Command
Vice Admiral Anil Chopra
Southern Naval Command
Vice Admiral K N Sushil
In 2005, the Indian Navy commissioned INS Kadamba at Karwar, 100 km from Goa. This is the third operational naval base after Mumbai and Vishakapatnam and the first to be controlled exclusively by the Navy. (The other bases share port facilities with civilian shipping, but this one is for purely naval use.) Built under Phase I of the multi-billion dollar Project Seabird, it is the largest naval base in the region. Asia's largest Naval academy INS Zamorin, was inaugurated at Ezhimala, in January 2009 by the Prime Minister of India.
Another naval base is being planned for the eastern shores, near Vishakapatnam at a cost of US$350 million. The base, which will be located fifty km south of Vishakapatnam in Rambilli Mandal, will have comprehensive anti-aircraft, anti-submarine and amphibious capability.This east coast base expansion program is in direct response to Chinese PLA Navy activities in the region.
The Indian Navy is setting up a naval station in Madagascar, to monitor and patrol the coast of Mozambique as well as the Southern Indian Ocean.
The Indian Navy also has berthing rights in Oman and Vietnam.
Commissioned officers The Commander of the Navy is the Chief of Naval Staff (CNS). Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma, who was formerly the Eastern Naval Commander at Visakhapatnam, assumed responsibility in August 2009 as the head of the Navy from incumbent Admiral Sureesh Mehta, who retired from service.
While the provision for the rank of Admiral of the Fleet exists, it is primarily intended for major wartime use and honour. No officer of the Indian Navy has yet been conferred this rank. (Both the Army and Air Force have had officers who have been conferred with the equivalent rank – Field Marshals Sam Manekshaw and Cariappa of the Army and Marshal of the Indian Air Force (MIAF) Arjan Singh.)
The Indian Navy today
The names of all in service ships (and Naval Bases) of the Indian Navy are prefixed with the letters INS, designating Indian Naval Ship or Indian Navy Station. The fleet of the Indian Navy is a mixture of domestic built and foreign vessels. As of 2010 the Indian Navy has 58,350 personnel on active duty (including 7,000 Naval Aviation, 1,200 Marine commandos), and 1,000 Sagar Prahari Bal soldiers
Aircraft carriers The Indian Navy presently has one aircraft carrier in active service, the INS Viraat. The carrier is planned for decommissioning after the induction of the first domestically built Vikrantclass aircraft carrier. The Indian Navy will also induct the Russian-built INS Vikramaditya, expected some time during 2012.
The Indian Navy has an Amphibious transport dock of the Austin class, re-christened as INS Jalashwa in Indian service. Besides, it also maintains a fleet of landing ship tanks and other landing craft. It is expected that four LPD amphibious assault ships are to be constructed along with eight landing craft vessels.
Destroyers and frigates
The Indian Navy currently operates the Delhi and Rajput class guided-missile destroyers. The Delhi and Rajput class destroyers will be replaced by the next-generation Kolkata class (Project 15A destroyers). Seven vessels are expected to be commissioned starting in 2012. In 2011, the Indian government gave the go-ahead for an additional 4 Project 15B destroyers (upgraded Kolkata class Project 15A destroyers).
The core frigate classes currently in service are the Shivalik class frigates, of which 2 are in service and 3 Talwar class frigates. The last vessel of the Shivalik class (project 17) is undergoing sea trials and is expected to be commissioned some time in 2012. Furthermore seven Project 17A class frigates (improved Shivalik class project 17 frigates) are on order and India recently closed a deal with Russia to construct three more Talwar class frigates. The first of which is expected to enter service in early 2013. The older Brahmaputra classand Godavari class frigates will systematically be replaced one by one as new ships are brought into service over the next decade. The last remai class frigate (a variant of the British Leander class) is soon to be decommissioned as it is replaced by the lastShivalik class (project 17) friganing Nilgirite this year.
The Indian Navy had inducted stealth frigate INS Teg which is an advanced version of the Talwar-class frigates.
The Indian Navy operates a sizeable fleet of Sindhughosh and Shishumar class submarines. India has started construction of sixScorpène class submarines with MESMA, the submarines will have air-independent propulsion. These submarines will join the Indian Navy starting from the second half of 2015. India issued a request for information for another six submarines in 2011
In 1988, India acquired an ex-Soviet Charlie class nuclear powered guided missile submarine with eight Ametist (SS-N-7 Starbright) anti-shipping missile launchers on a 3-year lease. In the Indian Navy, the vessel was commissioned as the INS Chakra, and the submarine was manned by an Indian crew. Upon expiration of the lease term in 1991, the submarine was returned to Russia and joined the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy.
India paid US$2 billion for the completion of two Akula-II class submarines which were 40–60% completed. Three hundred Indian Navy personnel were trained in Russia for the operation of these submarines. India has finalised a deal with Russia, in which at the end of the lease of these submarines, it has an option to buy them. The first submarine is named INS Chakra and was handed over to India on 23 January 2012. India's indigenously designed and built nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines of the Arihant class are expected to be commissioned starting some time during 2012. The lead vessel of the class, INS Arihant, was launched for sea-trials on 26 July 2009 in Visakhapatnam. The Navy plans to have six SSBN's in service some time during the next few decades
The Indian Navy currently operates the Kora, Khukri, Veer and Abhay class corvettes.The next-generation Project 28 and Project 28Aclass of corvettes are expected to be commissioned, starting sometime during 2012. The Navy also plans to introduce stealthy trimaran vessels that can be modified according to mission requirements.
The Indian Navy currently operates five replenishment tankers and one has been launched. They are the Jyoti class tanker, INS Aditya (A59) and the new Deepak class fleet tankers. The Deepak class tankers will be the mainstay of the replenishment fleet until the 1st half of the 21st century.
Naval Air Arm
The naval air-arm is an important component of the Indian Navy. The Indian Navy air arm consists of Sea Harrier jets that operate from theaircraft carrier INS Viraat. The Kamov-31 provide the Airborne Early Warning cover for the fleet. In the anti-submarine role the Sea King,Ka-28 and the domestic built HAL Dhruv are used. The MARCOS use Sea King and HAL Dhruv helicopters while conducting operations. Reconnaissance operations are carried out by Tupolev 142, Ilyushin 38, Dornier Do 228 aircraft, as well as HAL Chetak helicopters. The Aircraft used for carrying out roles of a strategic bomber and as a maritime strike are carried out by 4(3 more on order) Tupolev Tu-22M, which is also capable of performing reconnaissance missions. The UAV arm consists of around 30 UAVs like Heron and Searcher-IIs that are operated from ships and shore for better surveillance. The Indian Navy also maintains a four aircraft aerobatic display team, the Sagar Pawan. The Sagar Pawan team will be replacing their present Kiran HJT-16 aircraft with the newly developed HJT-36 aircraft.
Following the purchase of the Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov (to be recommissioned as INS Vikramaditya), India also purchasedMikoyan MiG-29Ks to operate from the aircraft carrier. The aircraft carrier is expected to become operational sometime after 2012.
Marine Commando Force
The Marine Commando Force (MCF), also known as MARCOS, is a special forces unit that was raised by the Indian Navy in 1987 fordirect action, special reconnaissance, amphibious warfare and counter-terrorism. In 1988, the MARCOS successfully rescued several hostages, including Maldives' then-Minister of Education, aboard a ship hijacked by PLOTE mercenaries during Operation Cactus. The MARCOS are typically deployed to prevent infiltration through the Jhelum and Wular Lake and are also involved in covert counter-terrorism operations in and around lakes and rivers in Jammu and Kashmir.
During the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, the MARCOS were also involved in the rescue mission of hostages captured by the terrorists in Taj Mahal Palace & Tower luxury hotel in Mumbai as part of a large terrorist attack in Mumbai metropolis in November 2008.
Systems and sensors
Weapon systems The Indian Navy uses modern technology and weapon systems, most of which are imported from foreign countries. Others, like theBrahMos supersonic cruise missiles, are jointly developed. There are reports on the joint development by India and Israel of the Barak 8missile system, an improved, longer range version of the Barak 1 air defence missile which is operational on Indian Navy ships. TheBarak 1 is used on most of the main ships of the Indian Navy. The Indian Navy's nuclear deterrence capability is based on Sukanya classships armed with the Dhanush ballistic missiles that has a range of 350 km.
India has a number of foreign made cruise missile systems, including the Klub SS-N-27. It also has its own Nirbhay cruise missile systems under development. The Sagarika (Oceanic) submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM), which has a range of at least 700 km (some sources claim 1000 km) forms part of India's nuclear triad. Another successful programme has been the adaptation of the Yakhont anti-ship missile system into the BrahMos by the NPO and the DRDO. The BrahMos has been tailored to Indian needs and uses a large proportion of Indian-designed components and technology, including its fire control systems, transporter erector launchers, and its onboard navigational attack systems. The successful test of Brahmos from INS Rajput (D51) provides Indian Navy with precision land attack capability.
Electronic warfare and systems management
Sangraha is a joint electronic warfare programme of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Indian Navy. The system comprises a family of electronic warfare suites, such as Ajanta and Ellora, for use on different naval platforms capable of intercepting, detecting, and classifying pulsed, carrier wave, pulse repetition frequency agile, frequency agile and chirp radars. The systems employ a modular approach facilitating deployment on various platforms like helicopters, vehicles, and small ships. Certain platforms, apart from ESM (electronic support measures), have ECM (electronic countermeasure) capabilities. Advanced technologies like multiple-beam phased array jammers are employed in the system for simultaneous handling of multiple threats.
The Indian Navy also relies on information technology to face the challenges of the 21st century. The Indian Navy is implementing a new strategy to move from a platform centric force to a network-centric force by linking all shore-based installations and ships via high-speed data networks and satellites. This will help in increased operational awareness. The network is referred to as the Navy Enterprise Wide Network (NEWN). The Indian Navy has also provided training to all its personnel in Information Technology (IT) at the Naval Institute of Computer Applications (NICA) located in Mumbai. Information technology is also used to provide better training, like the usage of simulators and for better management of the force.
Fleet reviews and naval exercises
The President of India is entitled to inspect his/her fleet, as he/she is the supreme commander of the Indian Armed Forces. The first President's fleet review by India was hosted by Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 10 October 1953. President's reviews usually take place once in the President's term. In all, ten fleet reviews have taken place, including in February 2006, when former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam took the review. The latest, on 20 December 2011, when President Pratibha Patil set sail in a warship INS Subhadra to take the 10th Fleet Review.
International fleet reviews
The Indian Navy also conducted an International fleet review named Bridges of Friendship in February 2001 in Mumbai. Many ships of friendly Navies from all around the world participated, including two from the U.S. Navy.
India often conducts naval exercises with other friendly countries designed to increase naval interoperability and also to strengthen cooperative security relationship. Some such exercises take place annually like the Varuna with the French Navy, Konkan with the Royal Navy, Indra with Russian Navy, Malabar with the U.S. Navy, Simbex with the Republic of Singapore Navy and IBSAMAR with theBrazil and South African navies. The Indian Navy also conducted exercise with the People's Liberation Army Navy in 2003 and will send ships to the South China Sea to participate in the fleet review. In 2007, the TROPEX (Theatre-level Readiness Operational Exercises) was held during which Indian Navy experimented the doctrine of influencing a land and air battle to support the Indian Armyand the Indian Air Force. Apart from the Indian Ocean, India has steadily gained influence in the Pacific Ocean. In 2007, Indian Navy conducted naval exercise with Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and U.S Navy in the Pacific and also signed an agreement with Japan in October 2008 for joint naval patrolling in the Asia-Pacific region. India has also held naval exercise with Vietnam, Philippines and New Zealand. In 2007, India and South Korea decided to conduct annual naval exercise and India participated in the South Korean international fleet review. In addition, Indian Navy will also be increasing naval cooperation with other allies, particularly with Germany and Arab states of the Persian Gulf including Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. India held the first Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) with an objective to provide a forum for all the littoral nations of the Indian Ocean to cooperate on mutually agreed areas for better security in the region. The Indian Navy is increasingly used in international diplomacy. Since 2000, the Indian naval ships have made port calls in Israel, Turkey, Egypt, Libya, Greece, Oman, Thailand, Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand, Tonga, South Africa, Kenya, Qatar, Oman,United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait and other countries in 2005–2007. The first Atlantic Ocean deployment of the Indian Navy happened in 2009. During this deployment, the Indian Naval fleet will conduct exercise with the French, German, Russian and British Navies.
Tropex 2010 was held, with the Western and Eastern fleets taking part along with elements from the airforce. In 2010, Indian naval warships were deployed in the Asia pacific region, and conducted courtesy calls at friendly ports.
Recently, Indian Navy carried out a Joint Naval exercise with Sri Lanka Navy codenamed SLINEX-II from 19 to 24 September 2011. The exercise was aimed at increasing the capabilities of the two nations in carrying out anti-piracy operations and exchanging professional knowledge.
Once in two years navies from the Indian Ocean region meet at the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the event is named as Milan. MILAN included a passage exercise in 2010.
The Indian Navy regularly conducts adventure expeditions. The sailing ship and training vessel INS Tarangini began circumnavigating the world on 23 January 2003, intending to foster good relations with various other nations; she returned to India in May of the following year after visiting 36 ports in 18 nations. INS Tarangini returned to port, after a ten month long overseas voyage named Lokayan 07. Lt. Cdr. M.S. Kohli led the Indian Navy's first successful expedition to Mount Everest in 1965; the Navy's ensign was again flown atop Everest on 19 May 2004 by a similar expedition. Another Navy team also successfully scaled Everest from the north face, the technically more challenging route. The expedition was led by Cdr Satyabrata Dam, belonging to the elite submarine arm. Cdr. Dam is a mountaineer of international repute and has climbed many mountains including the Patagonias, the Alps among others. This team's record is unmatched by any other navy. The Navy was also the first to send a submariner to summit Everest.
An Indian Navy team comprising 11 members successfully completed an expedition to the Arctic pole. To prepare, they first travelled toIceland, where they attempted to summit a peak. The team next flew to eastern Greenland; in the Kulusuk and Angmassalik areas, they used Inuit boats to navigate the region's ice-choked fjords. They crossed northward across the Arctic Circle, reaching seventy degrees North on skis. The team scaled an unnamed peak of height 11,000 feet (3,400 m) and named it ''Indian Peak
The Indian Naval ensign first flew in Antarctica in 1981. The Indian Navy succeeded in Mission Dakshin Dhruv 2006 by traversing to the South Pole on skis. With this historic expedition, they have set the record for being the first military team to have successfully completed a ski traverse to the Geographic South Pole. Also, three of the ten member team – the expedition leader – Cdr. Satyabrata Dam, leading medical assistants Rakesh Kumar and Vikas Kumar are now amongst the few people in the world to have visited the two poles and summited Mt. Everest. Indian Navy became the first organisation to reach the poles and Mt.Everest. Cdr. Dilip Donde completed the first solo circumnavigation by an Indian citizen on 22 May 2010.
Future of the Indian Navy
Indian Navy has decided to increase its spending by around 75 per cent in the current fiscal 2012-2013. With an overall hike in the defence budget of 17 per cent, Indian navy has been allocated $4.77 billion which is roughly $2 billion more than the allocation for 2011-2012. The increase in expenditure will be utilised to procure several frigates and destroyers, speed up key projects and increase its strategic reach in the Indian Ocean region.
Long Term Force Objective
By the end of the 14th Plan (2027), the Indian Navy expects to have "over 150 ships and close to 500 aircraft and helicopters". In addition to the existing mission of securing both sea flanks in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea, the navy would be able to "respond to emergent situations far away from the main land". Marine assault capabilities will be beefed by setting up a new amphibious warfare facility at Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh.
The Indian Navy has initiated Phase II expansion of INS Kadamba, the third largest naval base, near Karwar. Phase II will involve expansion of the berthing facilities to accommodate 40 more front-line warships, including the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya, tugs and barges, raise manpower to 300 officers and around 2,500 sailors, and build a naval air station with a 6,000-foot runway. This is to be followed by Phase IIA and IIB, at the end of which INS Kadamba will be able to base 50 front-line warships.
The Indian Navy is currently undergoing a 15 year modernisation plan in an attempt to replace older in service equipment. In 2004, India bought the Russian aircraft carrier, Admiral Gorshkov for the equivalent of US$1.5 billion. It will cost an additional US$1.5 billion to refit, and is expected to join the Indian Navy in 2012 as INS Vikramaditya. A further US$700 million was spent on the purchase of 12 single-seat MiG-29K and four dual-seat MiG-29KUB fighters, six Kamov-31 attack and reconnaissance anti-submarine helicopters; also included are training facilities for pilots and technical staff, delivery of simulators and spare parts, and establishment and maintenance of Indian Navy facilities. Upgrades included the removing of missile silos from the carrier foredeck to make way for a 14.3-degree ski-jump. The delivery of the aircraft to the Indian Navy started in 2009, and in May 2012, 15 had been inducted, with 29 more to be delivered.
In April 2007, India began construction of a 40,000 tonne Vikrant class aircraft carrier at a cost of US$800 million and scheduled to operate 30 aircraft, including Naval LCA, MiG-29K, and Sea Harrier combat aircraft, as well as HAL Dhruv, Ka-31, and Sea King Mk.42 helicopters. Four turbine engines will power the ship. The carrier is being constructed by state-run Cochin Shipyard Limited., and will be commissioned by 2012–13.
Yantar, a plant in Kaliningrad, Russia, was awarded a US$1.56 billion contract to build three additional 1135.6 frigates. The increased price is due to more sophisticated armaments such as BrahMos cruise missiles. The Navy has government approval for an additional eight warships.
The Indian Navy has signed a deal with Boeing to supply twelve P-8 Poseidon Anti Submarine Warfare/Maritime Surveillance Aircraft. The first aircraft will be delivered 4 years after the signing of the contract, that is 2012. Also there are plans to induct four AEW&C aircraft that will be based on carriers.
An order has been placed for seven Project 17A class frigates.
The design of a 65,000 ton aircraft carrier called Indigenous Aircraft Carrier II (IAC-II) is currently underway and if ordered is expected to be delivered to the Navy by 2017.
After INS Arihant, India has decided to construct two more nuclear powered Arihant class submarines. After ordering six Scorpène submarines as part of Project 75, the Indian Navy is now on the look out for six next-generation submarines in a project worth over 50,000 crore (US$10 billion).
The RFP (request for proposal) for six MRMR aircraft with anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capabilities was issued on 11 July 2008. The contract is expected to be signed in 2011 and deliveries to begin by 2012/2013. The Navy is also planning to purchase more UAVs
The Indian Navy has issued a tender for procurement of 16, multi-role naval helicopters to AgustaWestland, EADS andSikorsky. The order is likely to grow to around 60 helicopters. The helicopters will be equipped with anti-ship and anti-submarine warfare equipment including missiles and torpedoes, and also be capable of being in-flight refuelling. The type will operate from both naval vessels and land bases.
In November 2011, India's Defence Acquisition Council was looking for induction of large amphibious ships which they refer to as Multi-Role Support Vessel. It's speculated that they accordingly issued an international RFP for up to 4 amphibious operation vessels (most probably LHDs) with significant capability to carry Helicopters and troops. First the Indigenous Shipyards were consulted but since they have no experience in developing such type of vessels and had no design to propose, Indian government expects candidates from foreign allies.
Bids have been floated for eight mine countermeasure vessels (MCMVs), to replace the Pondicherry class ocean minesweepers in service. Six of the craft will be produced at Goa shipyard under transfer of technology.
Indian Navy is also envisaging a new 'Safety Organisation' to enhance safe operations of its warships, nuclear submarines and aircraft in view of its planned increase in fleet strength over the next decade.
The aim is to have a total of three aircraft carriers in service, with two fully operational carriers and the third in refit. This aim will increase the overall effectiveness of the Indian Navy. The long term plan was recently revealed by the Navy and shows a road-map to a blue-water navy with six aircraft carriers in service.
The Indian Navy is a well balanced and cohesive three dimensional force, capable of operating above, on and under surface of the oceans efficiently safeguarding our national interests.
The Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) exercises operational and administrative control of the Indian Navy from Integrated Headquarters of MOD(Navy). He is assisted by the Vice Chief of the Naval Staff (VCNS) and three other Principal Staff Officers, namely the Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff (DCNS), the Chief of Personnel (COP) and the Chief of Material (COM).
The Navy has the following three commands, each under the control of a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief:-
The Western Naval Command (Headquarters at Mumbai).
The Eastern Naval Command (Head quarters at Visakhapatnam)
The Southern Naval Command (Headquarters at Kochi)
The Western and the Eastern Naval Command are operational commands and exercise control over operations in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal respectively. The Southern Command is designed as the Training Command.
The cutting edge of the Indian Navy is its two fleets, namely the Western Fleet based at Mumbai and the Eastern Fleet based at Visakhapatnam. Besides the fleets, there is a flotilla based at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam and Port Blair (A & N Islands) that provides Local Naval Defence in the respective region. Naval ships are also based at other ports along the east and the west coast of India and the island territories thus ensuring continued naval presence in the areas of national interest. Further there are various Naval Officer-in-Charge (NOIC), under each command, responsible for the Local naval Defence of ports under their respective jurisdictions.
The defence of the Andaman & Nicobar islands is a joint responsibility of all the three services and is coordinated by the headquarters, Andaman & Nicobar Command, located at PortBlair. This is the only unified command in our defence forces and is headed by a Commander-in-chief, as appointment on rotation among three services. The Local Naval Defence of the Lakshadweep group of islands is the Naval Officer-in-Charge, Lakshadweep.
The Flag Officer Naval Aviation (FONA) based at Goa is responsible for overseeing all matters pertaining to aviation while Flag Officer Submarines (FOSM), who is also the Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Submarines) based at Integrated Headquarters of MOD(Navy), New Delhi is responsible for overseeing all the submarine related issues.
General Information On Officer Entry
WAYS OF BECOMING AN OFFICER IN THE INDIAN NAVY
In today's world, there are so many possibilities for you to choose from, such as high visibility, rapid growth jobs in banking, computers, corporate management, civil services etc. While examining your options, have you considered the Indian Navy? The Indian Navy will give you all the training you need and help you make the most of what you have your talents, your skills, your spirit and your aspirations. Are you in search of a challenge – are you young and bright, just out of school or university, have wide personal interests and hobbies, prepared to work hard and expect far more from your career than a remunerative pay packet? You need a challenge – a job that grows with you and provides variety and excitement. That is what precisely the Navy offers you. The Navy offers an extraordinary range of exciting career opportunities together with the chance to travel widely, meet new people and to enjoy the warmth & camaraderie that is so special to this service
SELECTION AND ENTRY
Officers recruitment is advertised through the Employment News and all important National and Regional news papers/dailies. Selection for all Permanent Commission entries, except 10 + 2 NDA and Naval Academy entry and NCC Special entry (Graduate) is through a written examination conducted by the UPSC, followed by an interview by the Service Selection Board (SSB). There is no written examination for the Short Service Commission entries. These applications are short listed as per the criteria laid down by the Naval Headquarters, Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment. Selection is through merit alone.
EDUCATIONAL & OTHER QUALIFICATIONS
It is mandatory that all Degrees and educational qualifications are from Educational Institutions recognised by the competent authority in the field. Degrees/mark sheets must be original or attested by appropriate authorities, as asked for in the advertisement. No compromise/relaxation will be made on this issue. All candidates desirous of joining the Indian Navy must be physically/mentally fit as per laid down standards. Proficiency in sports, swimming and extra-curricular activities is desirable.
Women are granted Short Service Commission (SSC) in Naval Architect, Law, Logistics, ATC, Aviation (Observer) & Education Branches. The government has also given approval for Permanent Commission (PC) in Education, Law and Naval Architect branch on completion of SSC tenure depending upon merit and vacancy.
FOR FURTHER DETAILS, CONTACT US :
The Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment,
Naval Headquarters, Sena Bhawan,
TeleFax : 011- 23011282, 23010097.
BROAD CLASSIFICATION OF BRANCHES
EXECUTIVE BRANCH As an officer of the Executive Branch one can exercise command of ships, submarines and aircraft. Executive officers can specialise in any of the following:
Gunnery & Missiles
Navigation and Direction
The other cadres that form part of the Executive Branch are - Law, Air Traffic Control, Naval Armament Inspection and Logistics.
Modern ships, submarines and aircraft are fitted with advanced technology machinery and propulsion systems. As an Engineer Officer, you will be responsible for keeping all these Hi-tech systems serviceable. Opportunities exist to work in gigantic naval dockyards and indigenous production units. In no other career is an engineer exposed to such a wide spectrum of opportunities and to keep abreast of modern developments. An Engineer Officer's career is interspersed with technical courses upto post graduation level in India/abroad.
You can also join in the Naval Architecture Cadre of the Engineering Branch. The Indian Navy today employs the largest pool of trained Naval Architects in India. A Naval Architect is involved in design, construction, quality control, repair and new construction work of naval vessels. With the Navy going for more and more sophisticated warship production within the country, the Corps of Naval Architects offers excellent opportunities to keep abreast of the advancement in ship building technology and implement your innovative ideas.
A warship is a mini floating city with an integral power generation and distribution system. In addition, complex missile systems, underwater weapons, radar and radio communication equipment form major part of a warship's equipment. A majority of these are either computer-based or computer aided and incorporate the latest trends in electronics engineering. For a ship to be able to fight effectively, all these equipment must be kept working at peak efficiency. Electrical Officers have this responsibility and other challenging tasks. To sharpen their skills, the Navy offers excellent opportunities for post-graduate courses in India/abroad to deserving candidates.
Note: Officers of the Engineering and Electrical Branches can also volunteer for the Aviation/ Submarine Arm.
Any service will be as good as the training its officers and men receive. As an Education Officer you will play a major role in the training of naval officers/sailors. Education Officers are responsible for scientific and methodical instructions, including theoretical aspects of technical subjects of all branches of the navy and also for general education. An Education Officer can specialise in almost all specialisations of the Executive Branch. In addition some officers also get specialisation in Oceanography & Meteorology.
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT SAILORS RECRUITMENT INTO INDIAN NAVY
The Indian Navy, as one of the three wings of Indian Armed Forces has kept pace with ever changing advanced technologies and operates and maintains highly sophisticated ships, submarines and aircraft. The propulsion machinery, weapons, sensors and equipment on board these weapon platforms are operated and maintained by sailors, who are imparted with requisite training at various intervals during their service.
The initial basic training is given at INS Chilka, District-Khurda, Orissa. This is followed by further training at various Naval Establishments all over the country. Prior to release from service sailors are also given pre-release courses to enable them to settle down in civil life. Sailors in the Navy are liable to serve anywhere in India, on board ships and Submarines or abroad as deemed necessary by the service.
THE BRANCH AND TRADE STRUCTURE WHICH IS ALLOTTED TO SAILOR ARE AS FOLLOWS:-
Modern ships, submarines and aircraft of the Indian Navy are highly sophisticated and technologically advanced platforms. As a sailor of the executive branch, you will be involved with operating the state-of-art weapons, navigational systems, communication sets, diving equipment etc. Your duties will also involve the maintenance of the equipment you will be operating. Duties of the sailors from the executive branch include a thorough training in the art of seamanship operating weapon and sensors, look-out duties and boat work. Besides these general duties they can obtain qualification in any one of the disciplines of Gunnery & Missiles, Antisubmarine warfare, Navigation and Direction, Diving, Survey, Physical Trainer, Regulating, Logistics and Communication.
A warship/ submarine is fitted with its own power generation and distribution system. As an electrical sailor you have the responsibility of upkeep and maintenance of all electrical, electronics and weapons equipment of the Navy. Their job onboard ships and submarines is good as supplying and maintaining power to mini township.
The sailor of this branch are technicians and highly trained mechanicians who pride themself on keeping propulsion & auxiliary system running smoothly be it teh engines, the weapon system, the aircraft or the machinery systems. As an Engineering branch sailor you will operate and learn to keep all this equipment serviceable. Sailors of this branch is also trained in Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Warfare & Damage Control including fire fighting. You will form part of the special class of men, upon whose judgement, foresight, coolness and skill, the ship and those onboard depend for safety. You will be trained and made ready to grasp, the opportunities that the technology holds out. The rich experience offered in this field stands you in sound position for post – retirement settlement. Sailors of this branch have the option to join the submarine also.
This branch comprises of specialist sailors who are trained to maintain and handle different type of aircraft operating in the Navy- whether onboard ship or ashore. They also handle highly sophisticated aviation stores and do other precision jobs for which they get special allowances.
Those who yearn for the exclusive challenge of operating below the surface of the oceans in the highly technical, powerful submarines- join this elite branch. Such sailors have to meet high professional and medical standards. They are entitled to the special Submarine Allowance and Perks.
NOTE: Sailors from the Submarine arm and the flight crew of the Aviation arm are taken from various branches subject to their volunteering and clearing the aptitude test and the Submarine and Aviation medical standards.
Professionals who are trained in a wide range of medical skills to care for the sick and the injured..... with the full backup of the Naval hospital services. They have the opportunity to specialise in many fields like Physiotherapy, Advance Nursing, Radiography, Lab Assistant, Dental Operation Room Assistant and Blood Transfusion etc